Architectural style: Romanesque
Romanesque style (from lat. Romanus – Roman) was developed in Western European art of the 10th-12th centuries. He most fully expressed in architecture.
The Romanesque, artistic style that prevailed in Western Europe (and also affected some countries of Eastern Europe) in the 10th — 12th centuries. (in some places – and in the XIII century) – one of the most important stages in the development of medieval European art.
The term “Romanesque style” appeared at the beginning of the XIX century, when the connection of the architecture of the XI-XII centuries with the ancient Roman architecture (in particular, the use of semi-circular arches, vaults) was established. In general, the term is conditional and reflects only one, not the main, side of art. However, he entered into universal use. The main type of art of the Romanesque style is architecture, mainly church (stone church, monastic complexes).
The Romanesque buildings are characterized by a combination of a clear architectural silhouette and conciseness of the exterior of the house – the building has always carefully fit into the surrounding nature and therefore looks particularly durable and solid. This was facilitated by massive smooth walls with narrow window openings and stepped-depth portals.
The main buildings during this period are the temple-fortress and castle-fortress. The main element of the composition of the monastery or castle becomes the tower – donjon. Around it were the rest of the buildings, composed of simple geometric shapes – cubes, prisms, cylinders.
Features of the architecture of the Romanesque cathedral:
The plan is based on the early Christian basilica, that is, the longitudinal organization of space
Enlargement of the choir or eastern altar of the temple
Increasing the height of the temple
Replacing the caisson (cassette) ceiling stone arches. Vaults were 2 types: box and cross.
Heavy arches required powerful walls and pillars
The main motive of the interior – the semicircular arches
Rational simplicity of construction, composed of individual square cells – grass.
Brief description of the architectural romance style
stucco, facade and architectural decor of the facades of the HARFA TERM – facade and architectural elements, decoration and design of facades. Characteristic features: relief plane, conciseness and simplicity. Painting (religious subjects). Floor – marble, tile with a pattern. Mirrors – chiffon bronze. Walls – Venetian plaster. The desire to show not the visual beauty, but the true beauty of the spirit.
Predominant colors: brown, red, green, white.
Lines: barrel, semi-circular, straight, horizontal and vertical.
Shape: rectangular and cylindrical.
Interior elements: semi-circular frieze, repeating geometric or floral pattern; rooms with open ceiling beams and supports in the center.
Constructions: stone, massive, thick-walled; wooden plastered with visible skeleton.
Windows: rectangular, small, in stone houses – arched.
Doors: plank, rectangular with massive hinges, lock and bolt.