Architectural style: Gothic
The word “Gothic” comes from the Italian gotico – an unusual, barbaric – (Goten – barbarians; this style has nothing to do with the historical Goths), and was first used as a brane. For the first time, the concept in the modern sense was applied by Giorgio Vasari in order to separate the Renaissance from the Middle Ages. Gothic completed the development of European medieval art, having arisen on the basis of the achievements of the Romanesque culture, and in the Renaissance (Renaissance) era, the art of the Middle Ages was considered “barbaric”. Gothic art was cult by purpose and religious topics. It appealed to the highest divine powers, eternity, Christian worldview.
Gothic style is mainly manifested in the architecture of temples, cathedrals, churches, monasteries. Developed on the basis of the Romanesque, more precisely – the Burgundian architecture. Unlike the Romanesque style with its round arches, massive walls and small windows, Gothic features arches with a pointed top, narrow and tall towers and columns, an ornate facade with carved details (vimpergi, timpans, archivolts) and multicolored stained-glass windows with lancers. All elements of style emphasize the vertical.
The church of the monastery of Saint-Denis Gothic architecture distinguishes 3 stages of development: early, mature (high Gothic) and late.
The church of the monastery of Saint-Denis, designed by the abbot Sugieria, is considered the first Gothic architectural structure. Saint-Denis Abbey is a Benedictine abbey in Saint-Denis, the northern suburb of Paris, the main monastery of medieval France. During the construction of the abbey church, many pillars and internal walls were removed, and the church acquired a more graceful appearance compared to the Romanesque temples.
In most cases, the chapel of Saint-Chapelle in Paris was taken as a sample. Sainte Chapelle (Fr. Sainte Chapelle) – chapel – reliquary. Located on the territory of the former Royal Palace (then Conciergerie) on the Isle of Cite in Paris. Performed in the Gothic style. It has a small size: length 35 m, width 11 m. It is considered one of the most beautiful gothic churches of small size. The third most visited monument in Paris. The chapel is built in a refined manner: thin stone walls are reinforced with metal brackets and richly decorated with sculptural, ceramic and picturesque decor. It is divided into two tiers of equal area (600 m2), but of different heights. The lower chapel, consecrated in honor of the Virgin Mary, was intended for the courtiers, palace guards and servants. At the top, consecrated in the name of the Holy Cross, prayed royal family, confidants. Relics were kept there. The first of the two tiers (lower chapel) has three naves and is reinforced by slender buttress closely adjacent to the walls, which assume the spread of a wide central flight. In the main tier, the upper chapel, which reaches a height of 20 m, it was possible to go straight from the main chambers of the palace, and there was built a small alcove for the royal family. The nave of the upper chapel is famous for its fully preserved stained glass windows, mainly from the 13th century, which transform the interior into a real jewelry box.
New frame constructionIz-de-France (France) Gothic architectural style spread to Western, Middle and Southern Europe – to Germany, England, etc. In Italy, it did not dominate for long and, like the “barbarian style”, quickly gave way to the Renaissance; and since he came here from Germany, it is still called “stile tedesco” – German style.
With the arrival of the Renaissance to the north and west of the Alps at the beginning of the 16th century, the Gothic style lost its meaning. Almost all the architecture of Gothic cathedrals is due to one main invention of that time – the new frame construction, which makes these cathedrals easily recognizable.
In Romanesque cathedrals and churches, a cylindrical vault was usually used, which rested on massive thick walls, which inevitably led to a reduction in the building’s volume and created additional difficulties during construction, not to mention the fact that this predetermined a small number of windows and their modest size. With the advent of the cross vault, the system of columns, arch-butters and buttresses, the cathedrals took on the form of huge openwork fantastic structures.
stucco, facade and architectural decor of the facades of the HARFA TERM – facade and architectural elements, decoration and design of facades. The basic principle of operation of the structure is as follows: the arch does not rest on the walls (as in Roman buildings), now the pressure of the cross vault is transmitted by arches and ribs to the columns (pillars), and the lateral thrust is perceived by archbutans and counterforts. This innovation made it possible to greatly simplify the structure due to the redistribution of loads, and the walls turned into a simple light “shell”, their thickness no longer affected the overall load-bearing capacity of the building, which allowed making many windows and wall paintings, for lack of walls, gave way to stained glass and sculpture .