Architectural style: revival
The architecture of the Renaissance – the period of development of architecture in European countries from the beginning of the XV to the beginning of the XVII century in the general course of the revival and development of the foundations of the spiritual and material culture of ancient Greece and Rome. This period is a turning point in the history of architecture, especially in relation to the previous architectural style, to the Gothic. Gothic, unlike Renaissance architecture, sought inspiration in its own interpretation of classical art.
Of particular importance in this direction is attached to the forms of ancient architecture: symmetry, proportion, geometry and order of the component parts, as evidenced by the surviving examples of Roman architecture. The complex proportion of medieval buildings is replaced by an orderly arrangement of columns, pilasters and lintels; the semicircle of the arch, the hemisphere of the dome, the niche, the ediculum replace the asymmetrical outlines.
The development of the Renaissance Architecture led to innovations in the use of building techniques and materials, to the development of architectural vocabulary. It is important to note that the revival movement is characterized by a departure from the anonymity of artisans and the emergence of a personal style among architects. There are few masters who built works in the Romanesque style, as well as architects who built magnificent Gothic cathedrals. While the works of the Renaissance, even small buildings or just projects have been carefully documented since their inception.
The first representative of this direction can be called Filippo Brunelleschi, who worked in Florence, a city, along with Venice, considered to be a monument of the Renaissance. Then it spread to other Italian cities, and to France, Germany, England, Russia and other countries.
Periodization of the Renaissance architecture
stucco, facade and architectural decor of the facades of the HARFA TERM – facade and architectural elements, decoration and design of facades. Usually the Italian Renaissance is divided into three periods. In the history of art we can talk about the development of fine art and sculpture in the framework of the direction of the early Renaissance in the XIV century. In the history of architecture, the situation is different. Due to the economic crisis of the 14th century, the Renaissance in architecture began only at the beginning of the 15th century and lasted until the beginning of the 17th century in Italy and longer beyond its borders.
There are three main periods:
Early Renaissance or quatrocento, roughly coincides with the XV century.
High Renaissance, first quarter of the XVI century.
Mannerism or the Later Renaissance (c. 1520-1600).
In other European countries, their pre-renaissance style developed, and the Renaissance itself did not begin early in the 16th century, the style was grafted into already existing traditions, as a result of which the structures of the Renaissance in different regions may have slightly similar features.
In Italy itself, the Renaissance architecture turned into a Mannerist architecture, represented in rather different trends in the works of Michelangelo, Giulio Romano and Andrea Palladio, which was then reborn into Baroque, using similar architectural techniques in a different general ideological context.