Architectural style: baroque
Baroque architecture (L. Bernini, F. Borromini in Italy, BF Rastrelli in Russia) is characterized by spatial scope, cohesion, turnover of complex, usually curvilinear, forms. Often there are deployed large-scale colonnades, an abundance of sculpture on the facades and in the interiors, volutes, a large number of fragments, arched facades with framing in the middle, rusticated columns and pilasters. Domes acquire complex shapes, often they are multi-layered, like those of St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome. The characteristic details of the Baroque are the telamon (atlas), caryatid, mascaron.
In Italian architecture, the most prominent representative of the Baroque was Carlo Madern (1556-1629), who broke with Mannerism (later Renaissance) and created his own style. His main creation is the facade of the Roman Church of Santa Susanna (1603) (see photo on the right). The main figure in the development of Baroque sculpture was Lorenzo Bernini, whose first masterpieces performed in a new style date from around 1620. Bernini is also an architect. He owns the decoration of the square of St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome (see photo gallery after the article) and interiors, as well as other buildings. A significant contribution was made by D.Fontana, R.Reinaldi, G.Gvarini, B. Longen, L. Vanvitelli, P. da Cortona.
The quintessence of the Baroque, an impressive fusion of painting, sculpture and architecture is considered to be the Koranaro Chapel in the church of Santa Maria della Vittoria (1645-1652).
stucco, facade and architectural decor of the facades of the HARFA TERM – facade and architectural elements, decoration and design of facades. Baroque style is spreading in Spain, Germany, Belgium (then Flanders), the Netherlands, Russia, France. In France, the Baroque style is more modest than in other countries. It used to be thought that here style generally did not develop, and baroque monuments were considered monuments of classicism. Sometimes the term “baroque classicism” is used in reference to the French and English versions of the Baroque. The Versailles Palace (see photo gallery) along with a regular park, the Luxembourg Palace (see photo on the left), the building of the French Academy in Paris, and other works now rank among the French Baroque. They really have some features of classicism. A characteristic feature of the Baroque style is a regular style in landscape art, an example of which is the Versailles Park.
Later, in the early 18th century. the French have developed their own style, a variety of Baroque – Rococo. It manifested itself not in the exterior design of buildings, but only in the interiors, as well as in the design of books, in clothing, furniture, and painting. The style was spread throughout Europe and Russia.
Baroque appears in Russia in the 17th century (“Naryshkin baroque”, “Golitsyn baroque”). In the 18th century, during the reign of Peter I, it was developed in St. Petersburg and its suburbs in the work of D. Trezzini – the so-called “Petrine Baroque” (more restrained), and flourished during the reign of Elizaveta Petrovna in the works of S.I. Chevakinsky and B. Rastrelli.
In Germany, an outstanding Baroque monument is the New Palace in Sans Souci (the authors are I. G. Büring, H. L. Manter) and the Summer Palace (see photo) ibid. (G. V. von Knobelsdorf).
The largest and most famous baroque ensembles in the world: Versailles (France), Peterhof (Russia), Aranjuez (Spain), Zwinger (Germany), Schönbrunn (Austria).
Russian Baroque (also Elizabethan, Rastrelli) – style in art (primarily in architecture, sculpture and painting); The Russian “replica” of the European Baroque style fully developed in Russian art by the end of the first half of the XVIII century.
This style, to create heroic images, to glorify the power of the Russian Empire, most clearly manifested in the middle of the XVIII century in the architectural structures of one of the largest architects of this trend – F. B. Rastrelli. According to his designs, majestic palace ensembles were created in Petersburg (Winter, 1754–1762; Stroganov Palace, 1752–1754, see photo on the right) and in Peterhof (1746–1775), in Tsarskoye Selo (Catherine Palace, 1747–1757 (see a photo)). The enormous scale of the buildings, the extraordinary richness and pomp of the decorative furniture, the two- and three-colored coloring of the facades with the use of gold – all this struck the spectators imagination, causing their sincere admiration. The solemn, festive nature of the architecture of Rastrelli left its mark on all Russian art of the mid-18th century.
Brief description of the architectural style of Baroque
Characteristic features: symmetry in style, spaciousness. A lot of stucco. The complex surface of the plane in the buildings, the big new turns in the columns, framed ceilings with recessed parts.
Predominant colors: muted pastel colors; Red, pink, white, blue with a yellow accent.
Lines: fancy convex-concave asymmetrical pattern; in the forms of semicircle, rectangle, oval; vertical lines of columns; pronounced horizontal division.