Art Nouveau in architecture
Modern style appeared in European style modern in architecture and American art in the late XIX – early XX century and most clearly manifested in the architecture of private houses – mansions, as well as in the construction of business, industrial and commercial buildings – banks, exchanges, stations. Appearing in a rapidly developing industrial society, the modern style, on the one hand, was characterized by rational structures: reinforced concrete, glass, and facing ceramics were widely used, on the other hand, its decorative nature was the main feature of the style.
Buildings in the modernist style do not have a division into constructive and decorative elements: architectural forms were aesthetically comprehended, so that, admiring the beauty and decorativeness of the supporting structures, one could forget about their practical purpose.
In the modern architectural style of buildings there is no separation of structural and decorative elements.
One of the principles of modern architecture was the principle “from the inside to the outside”: from the most optimal, individually convenient planning of the interior to the external appearance of the building. Thanks to artistic processing and asymmetry, the facades reflected the expediency and coziness of the arrangement of the inner rooms.
The facades in the Art Nouveau style are similar to living organisms, recalling both natural forms and the result of the artist’s free creativity. Decorative elements were widely used in the design of the facades: loggias and galleries with balustrades, various wooden beams, smooth or rough, without decoration, scenic terraces, stairs, decorations on the walls and windows. A favorite form for balconies was a polygon with protruding consoles, creating a romantic mood due to its simplicity. Columns, moldings, cornices have a particularly beautiful and attractive view of unequal size, rows of windows of various shapes and asymmetrically arranged doors give the impression of natural disorder and natural naivety. Decorative elements (columns, moldings, cornices) have a particularly beautiful and attractive appearance due to straight and undulating in-depth strips, alternating smooth and rough plaster with ornaments made of lush branches and; carelessly; scattered flowers. Architects turn to whimsical decoration in ornaments and wall paintings, deliberately emphasizing curving and streamlined shapes and lines.
Patterns of metal bindings of railings and marching ladders, balcony railings, roof bends, asymmetrical openings, whimsical ornamentation of climbing algae and female heads with flowing hair were combined with creatively reworked styles of the past (“eastern” or “medieval” arches, bay windows, turrets and etc.), Eastern or medieval arches, bay windows, turrets, etc., which gave the buildings a romantic character. At the same time, architects do not reproduce the characteristic details of a certain architectural style, but create a new image that evokes not emotional, but emotional associations with exotic countries and past eras.
Such an impression is created by various means: the silhouette of the walls, the forms of the roof, the decorative elements, the play with color and light.
Thus, it is possible to distinguish the characteristic features of the modernist style in architecture:
the main motifs are vegetable;
the basic principle is the assimilation of the man-made to the natural and vice versa;
creative rethinking of historical styles as a source of architectural forms;
the primacy of the functional purpose and the following form for this purpose.